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PhpDig is a PHP MySQL based
Web Spider & Search Engine.



substr — Gets part of a string.


string substr(string, start[, length]);
string string: String to operate on
int start: Offset of the substring
int length (optional): Length of the substring


String; FALSE on error


substr() is used to get part of a string. The part of the string to be returned is specified as a range using the start and length arguments.

Behavior of the start and length arguments is interesting, allowing for a great deal of flexibility in choosing what part of the string to replace. See the following table for details.

Argument Value Behavior
start Non-negative integer Start the substring at start characters into the string.
start Negative integer Start the substring at start characters from the end of the string.
length Not set The substring extends from start to the end of the string.
length Non-negative integer End the substring length characters from the position specified by start .
length Negative integer End the substring length characters from the end of the string.


substr() only operates in a left-to-right fashion. If start is a negative value and length is less than or equal to start , length is considered as having a value of0 instead. For example:

echo substr('Oops!', -2, -4);



PHP 3+, PHP 4+

See also

Other functions that find characters within strings:







Example 1238. Convert a mmddyy format date to yy/mm/dd

$date = 110579;
$month = substr($date, 0, 2);
$day   = substr($date, 2, 2);
$year  = substr($date, -2);

echo "$year/$month/$day";


PHP Functions Essential Reference. Copyright © 2002 by New Riders Publishing (Authors: Zak Greant, Graeme Merrall, Torben Wilson, Brett Michlitsch). This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, v1.0 or later (the latest version is presently available at The authors of this book have elected not to choose any options under the OPL. This online book was obtained from and is designed to provide information about the PHP programming language, focusing on PHP version 4.0.4 for the most part. The information is provided on an as-is basis, and no warranty or fitness is implied. All persons and entities shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage arising from the information contained in this book.

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